"Geesi dhereb kuma jiro"

Thursday, October 1, 2015

Top 15 Logical Fallacies

Christianity is a logical fallacy because god is basically sending himself to sacrifice himself to himself to save humanity from himself. Hindu mob recently lynched Indian Muslim for rumored killing of a cow. Hajj pilgrimsclassic example of pedant ritualistic irrelevancythrew stones at a wall supposedly containing "the devil" who has been residing there for 1400 years unmoved by previous stoning rituals even long before Islam was invented.   

(A logical fallacy is a flawed pattern of reasoning.)

#1. Argumentum ad ignorantium - Fallacy that something must be true because it has not been, or can't be, proven false.

(If you can't prove that god doesn't exist, that means he must exist.)


#2. Argumentum ad misericordia - Appealing to pity.

(Why are you so intent on destroying something that makes so many sick children happy!)

#3. Argumentum ad nauseum - Fallacy that something is likely to be true the more often it is said.

(God exists, how many times do I have to tell you?)

#4. Argumentum ad novitatem - Fallacy that something is right because it's new.

(Of course Mormonism is the true religion, Joseph Smith is the most recent prophet.)

#5. Argumentum ad populum - Fallacy that something is correct based on the amount of people who believe it.

(Look how many people believe Jesus is the son of god, they can't all be wrong! )

#6. Bifurcation - Fallacy of presenting a situation as having only two answers.

(Evolution is wrong, so that means creationism is right.)

#7. Circular Logic - The premise that what you are trying to prove is evidence of itself.

(The bible is the word of god because it says it is, and it can't be wrong, because after all, it is the word of god.)

#8. Cum hoc ergo propter hoc - Fallacy of asserting that simulataneous events must be causally related.

(With all these natural disasters happening how can you deny that god isn't punishing us?)

#9. Plurium interrogationum - Fallacy of demanding a simplistic answer to a complex question.

(If god didn't create the universe then explain what did?)

#10. Slippery slope fallacy - Fallacy that one event will inevitably lead to harmful consequences.

(If we let lesbians get married it will be the end of family values.)

#11 - Tu Quoque. The fallacy that flaws in one thing can be justified by pointing to flaws in another.

(Well the US army also killed innocents!)

#12 - Argumentum ad hominem. The fallacy that personal attack and insult is a substitute for refuting what someone says.

(You are mad, stupid, lost your job, lied when you were 17… )

#13 - Red Herring Fallacy: An argument that is irrelevant and intended to replace the lack of real arguments or to replace implicitly the subject of the discussion.

("If God is cruel then how come he gives people eternal paradise?")

#14 - No true Scotsman Fallacy used to take advantage of the ambiguity of a word:

Scotsman A: You know, laddie, no Scotsman puts sugar in his porridge.
Scotsman B: Is that so? I seem to recall my cousin Angus puts sugar in his porridge.
Scotsman A: Aye... but no true Scotsman puts sugar in his porridge.

-The fallacy lies in redefining the word "Scotsman" in order to exclude those who put sugar in their porridge.

#15. Argument from (personal) incredulity.

 ("I cannot imagine how this could be true, therefore it must be false!")

Xasan Sheekh Ma Fiyoow Yahay?

Su’aasha waxaa dhaliyey gorfaynta dhaqanka madaxweynaha. Arar ahaan ma aha su’aal wacan oo qof laga keeno, ha ahaatee kolkii la dhaadey gabaarageddigii saddexdii gu’aad ee Xasan Sheekh hoggaaminayey dalka ayay isu soo buuraysaa su’aal mudan. Waxaa laga baxay ku-meel-gaarkii waxaa se muuqda wax ka sii liita, waxaa dhisan baa la yiri dawlad rasmi ah waxaa se muuqda “wax dawlad u eg”, waxaa la qabay yididdiillo oo waxaa beddelay qarracan. Ballanqaadyo loo sameeyey bulshada ayaa noqday hal bacaad lagu lisay oo talis-ku-sheeggu hawadin waayey, oo dheeftii lagu han weynaa isu rogtay anfariir, wax badan oo la sugayey baa ahaan kari waayey.

Madaxweynaha waxaa ka muuqda isbeddel oo waa gaboobay si dhakhso ah. Waa maxay shiidaadda gaboowsiisay saddex gu’ oo wax la qabtay oo la taaban karo ay jirin? Haa, waxaa jira musuqmaasuq noqday astaanta dawladda iyo nin toocsi ama eex bareer ah oo aan gabbasho lahayn oo aan noocooda horay loo arag oo ka turjuman han yaraanta dadka talada dalka looga dambeeyo joogtada maanta. Ma waxaa cimri deddejiyey intaas iyo degmooyinka argaggixisada UGUS laga saaray oo uu booqday iyo beelaha uu ka dhoollo-caddeeyo? Maya ee waxaa ku cuslaaday shaqada magac-u-yaalka ah ee dawladdeenna liiqliiqato oo dellegtay durba.

Doorashadii ra’iisal wasaarihii koowaad ee Cabdi Faarax Shirdoon “Saacid” (Oktoobar, 2012) ee Xasan Sheekh dalka u dooray ayaa waxaa hadalkiisii ka mid ahaa “inta aan eersan lahaa nin la ii keenay, waxa aan eersanayaa nin aan aqaan”. Doorashadii ra’iisal wasaarihii labaad (Deseembar, 2013), C/Weli Sheekh Axmed, waxaa madaxweynuhu yiri “waxa aan ka la soo dhex baxay afartan siyaasi”. Tiraabaha waxaa ka muuqda dhayal iyo in aan laga fiirsan. Wax ka dharban ma leh hadal beeg la’. Qof hawshiisa yaqaan oo ummad dhan oo malaayiin ah hoggaamiya sidaas uma hadlo. Hadal masuul ma aha. Doorashadii ra’iisal wasaarihii saddexaad hadalkii uu yiri dad badan dhageey-jalaq uma siin. Hadalka madaxweyne waa in uu tan leeyahay, tayo leeyahay oo keni-adkaan yahay, oo tixraac iyo milge hogotusmeeyo.

Xasan Sheekh dalka ka ma bixin muddadii dagaallada sokeeyeed sidaas awgeed ma hanan ilbaxnimada adduun-aragga ay Soomaalidu la kulantay. Ilbaxnimada Soomaalidu aad ayay u liidataa, saykooloji ahaan na dhaawac baa gaaray maanka Soomaaliyeed dagaalladii daraaddood oo madaxweynuhu na dadka ka la simman yahay. Gaabintiisu intaas ayay marmarsiinyo ka dhigan kartaa. Siyaalahaas baa lagama maarmaan ka dhigay in la xusho ruug-caddaa siyaasadeed debedda ka yimid.

Waagii hoggaankiii askarka markii dadkii iyo dawladdii ka la irdhoobay siddeetameeyadii waxaa la oran jiray “Siyaad Barre Ha Dhaco!” Waagaas oo mugdi lagu sii luudayay ayay jirtay yididdiillo in la hanan doono hoggaan wanaagsan oo xeeleeya dhaqaale darridii sababtay dagaalladii burburka. Ma wanaagsana mucaaradayn joogtaysan haseyeeshee ayaandarro Soomaaliya abidkeed ma ayaansan talis loo bogay. Dabayaaqadii siddeetameeyaddii madaxweynihii dalka waxaa saameeyay gaboow muruq iyo maan, waxaa la waayey astaan dawladnimo, oo la garan waayey cidda talada dalka haysa. Hoggaankii Xisbigii Hantiwadaagga Kacaankii Soomaaliyeed ayaa ku koobmay madaxtooyada. Hay’addii daabacday dhambaallada dimlomaasiyeed (WikiLeaks) waxay baahisay dareenkii madaxdii golaha sare ee ku saabsanaa tuhun ahaa madaxweyne hawl gabay maskax ahaan oo aan dalka maamuli karin, siddeetan iyo shantii ayuu tuhunku bilowday.

Madaxweyneheenna dhuyaal badane waa garan waayey himilada dadka iyo tabaha hoggaanka wanaagsan oo dalku u baahan yahay. Saddex sano wax badan baa qof lagu bartaa. Gaboowga iyo timo-buubka ka muuqda Xasan (“I can’t believe I’m a president!”) Sheekh waa laylis dhan. Biiraalaha TIME ayaa sannadkii 2013-kii Xasan Sheekh ku daray liiska boqolka qof ee dunida ugu saamayn badan. Haatan waxaa xaajo timid “ma fiyoow yahay?” Qaabka uu shaqada ugu dhiiqooday, duqoowga iyo tixraaca tusaalooyin taban jawaabtu waa maya!

Tilmaamaha hoggaankeenna dhimaalan waxaa ka mid ah in uu toddobaad dhan ku jiro Villa Soomaaliya oo ay jirin hawl dawladeed iyo dhaqdhaqaaq toona. Toddobaadka xiga waxaa la daawadaa qaabbilaad qosol ku dhan oo loo sameeyay wufuud shisheeyeed. Toddobaadyada bisha halkaas ayay ku eg yihiin teer iyo bisha kale oo sidaas gu’aalkii saddexda ahaa ku idlaadeen. Waa tabtii dabayaaqadii siddeetameeyadii. Waxaa ka sii daran Faarax Cabdiqaadir [madaxweynaha aan rasmiga ahayn] oo baal ka soo amaahday xisbiga EPRDF ee Itoobiya, gaar ahaan, xeesha ugu liidata hab maamulkiisa, iyo tuugo daaha gadaashiisa ku lammaan.

Haddeerto waxaa soo baxaya astaamo ah in Xasan Sheekh ismooday hoggaamiye waddan ku qabsaday xoog, awoodda xukunka na ku haysta si kelinnimo ah, tashi la’aan. Sid-dhoweyn kale iyo 2016-ka waxaa u cad laaluushidda joqorreyaasha baarlamaanka si loogu yumbado dhiiqada. Tijaabadii ahayd dal ha toosiyo waa dhammaatay haatan na leeyahay “Ha la ii gu daro”. Hubaal ma fiyooba!

Wakhti badan baa khasaaray oo hanti badan baa la lunsaday saddexdii sano oo la soo dhaafay, taageeradii dhaqaale oo loogu talo galay dawladda curdanka ah waxa ay ku dhaaftay musuqmaasuq, waxaa na jirta lacag dalka loo yaboohay oo dalal kale qaatay. Hororkii dawlad la’aantu weli waa aloosan yahay oo diric lagu diirsado beesha ma joogo. Daarihii burburay oo madaxtooyada agteeda ku yaal weli sidii ayay u foolxun yihiin, talisku iin uma arko oo maba garawsana, gu’yaal badan na mid garan doona uma eka. Gungaar kale baa tibaaxay in madaxweynuhu iska dhaadhiciyay in uu siyaasi weyn yahay oo maareyn karo qaabka uu uga gudbi doono doorashada la saadaaliyay. Sida uu isu arko waa si yaab leh. Qof wanaag samofalay oo hawl cajiib ah qabtay ayuu isu arkaa.

Xasan Sheekh ayaa ku yimid nicii Sheekh Shariifkii ku-meel-gaarka. Naca haatan lagu kulaalayo afjarka soo food leh waxaa ka dhalan kara ku ka daran, haddeer se maanka bulshada ayay ku jirtaa in ku ka daran jiri ba karin.

Bishii Oktoobar sannadkii 2014-kii waxaa cirka isku shareeray bareerihii laalay ra’iisal wasaarihii labaad iyo qalalaasihii laaluushka dhuuniyaasha baarlamaanka. Isla goorkaas waxaa xeebaha Xamar lagu ciyaarayay ciyaarta la yiraahdo “waalo” oo laga ciyaaro gobolka Hiiraan. Haddana waxaa dhimatay dhalinyaro u bayhoofay baaxad sooreyaasha lamadegaanka si ay u galaan dalalka Galbeed. Isla haddana waxaa gardheereyaal Wahabi ah maanka ka xaleen carruur ay dhaleen haween ku nool Galbeedka oo lagu oogay falal argaggixisonimo. Haddii aan Soomaali nahay maxaa ba noo haray garasho ahaan? Dawga curan iyo dunida maanta mid na waxaasu door ku ma leh. Ayaandarrada koowaad waa hab nololeed raad ku leh reerguuraanimada, leh; “iska nooloow, iska cun, iska guurso, iska dhal oo iska dhimo”, oo kan dunidaan maanta ee leh “haddii aadan dunida wax ku soo kordhin adiga ayaa siyaado ku ah”, la taag ahayn, waa sedka nolosha Soomaalidu adduunyada ku leedahay oo daaran han yari iyo hadimaale. Dal cagihiisa ku taaga waxaa ka horreeya dad cagihiisa ku taaga.

Dhaqanka Soomaalida ayaa baraarujiya isku-tiirsanaanta hantiwadaagnimo ee bidixda fog oo ka-soo-horjeedda deeqtoomidda midigta fog dhaqandhaqaale ahaan. Adduunyada maanta saboolnimada ama hodantinnimada bulsho waxay ku salaysan yihiin hadba dhaqanka qolo leedahay. Dhaqan dhaleecaynta iyo ku dhiirrashada isbeddellada socotada nolosha aadmiyeed waa guubaabada ka maqan dhaqankeenna ku raagay reerguuraanimo oo ka masuul ah qaab darrida Soomaalida maanta. Xasan Sheekh halkaan buu ku soo baaluqay. Dukaan ma maamuli karo. Ilmirigle ismooday itaal weyne ayaa malloollinnimo la yimaada.

Ummadda daashay waxay u hangal taagaysaa talis firfircoon oo ititibiya oo araareeya oo darxumada ka bixiya. Indheergarad u iftiimiya nolol aaran ah oo magaceeda iyo maankeeda suga, waxay sugaysaa miigganaanta Paul Kigame oo kale. Paul Kigame markii uu ku guulaystay nabadaynta iyo soo-kabashada Ruwaanda ayuu kiraystay hay’ad ku xeeldheer sumcadda oo xayeysiisay magaca Ruwaanda. Waxaa kobcay maalgashi dalka ka dhigay dalalka Afrika ugu dhaqaale iyo nolol roon. Dabadeed waxaa dakhli ahaan toban jibbaarmay maalka uga baxay hay’adda sumcadda dalka kor u qaadday oo ii-dheh u samaysay.

Kunka iyo labada boqol oo erey oo kor ku qoran doodda lagu ma ekeyn karo. Saadaal wacan ma muuqato. Maanka Xasan Sheekh waa ayaandarro ku habsatay Soomaaliya.

Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Religious Fundamentalism: A Side Effect of Lazy Brains?

Insights from neuroscience suggest that the brain tends to automatically accept rather than reject beliefs, oftentimes independent of how logical they might be.

If there is anything that global news has shown us in the past couple of years, it’s that fundamentalism is on the rise and more pervasive than ever. Fundamentalist beliefs have driven countless beheadings, bombings, and execution-style murders by terrorist groups like IS and Al Qaeda in the last year alone. At a time when religious extremism is running rampant in large areas of the world, and steadily growing in virtually all others, finding effective ways to fight it at its core is in the interests of all free nations.

Although many complex causes of fanatical fundamentalism have been identified by a wide range of disciplines, a growing body of evidence from the field of neuroscience suggests one major contributing factor: Brains generally accept beliefs because they have to work much harder to reject them as false.

Beliefs and the Brain

Scientific research investigating the neural underpinnings of belief got its start as recently as 2008, when popular author and neuroscientist Sam Harris began a series of brain imaging studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. The concept was simple: How is the brain activated differently during a state of belief compared to a state of disbelief?

While in an fMRI scanner, participants were asked whether or not they believed in a number of statements. Sentences ranged from the very simple and fact-based (California is larger than Rhode Island), to the abstract and highly subjective (God probably does not exist). The data revealed activation of distinct but sometimes overlapping brain areas during belief versus disbelief conditions.

Additionally, the scans clearly showed something that was more straightforward. Brain activation, overall, was much greater and persisted longer during states of disbelief. This is important because neuroscience has long shown that greater brain activity requires more mental resources, of which there is a limited supply. A cognitive process that demands little mental resources, such as believing, is less work for the brain and therefore favored. This concept was summed up nicely in a 2015 NewScientist cover story on the science of beliefs, which stated, “Harris’ results were widely interpreted as further confirmation that the default state of the human brain is to accept. Belief comes easily; doubt takes effort.”

This finding has great implications for understanding the factors involved in human behavior and decision-making. We all know that our beliefs strongly guide our actions and shape our moral and political attitudes. Since the brain tends to accept ideas rather than reject them, those raised in cultures that promote religious indoctrination of children at a very early age—long before they are taught science, if taught science at all—are more susceptible to holding fundamentalist beliefs later in life.

Further evidence supporting the notion that the brain favors believing comes from classic psychology experiments with children. Many studies have shown the perhaps common sense idea that young children are prone to believe what they are told rather than reject it. The latter involves an evaluation phase that the former does not, which again places more demands on the brain’s limited resources. Suggestibility and gullibility, in a sense, come naturally.

For most Americans, childhood years were spent believing in magical figures like Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny. All over the world, children have undoubted faith in whatever supernatural beings have been introduced to them by their family and reinforced by their schools and social networks. However, it is important to emphasize that the tendency to believe in ideas effortlessly and automatically is shared by children and adults alike. Although more pronounced in children, a bias toward the less-demanding process of believing remains throughout life.

Science-Based Solutions

Such data-informed insights may offer solutions to the problem of widespread fundamentalism that is fueling many Islamic terror groups in the Middle East and Western nations alike.

At present, in most homes around the world, regardless of the religion, mystical explanations for natural events are taught to children by parents from the time they are old enough to communicate. Even in progressive nations like the U.S. and England, courses on subjects like evolution and physics—that give well-established physical explanations for questions about our origins and how the world works—are not mandatory for all students in high school or even college. Given that ideas are easily accepted as true in early stages of life, great progress could be made if public schools provided children and young adults with a basic science education from the beginning of their academic career. Combatting the brain’s habit of taking the path of least resistance calls for change in legislation that places science subjects at the forefront of schools’ core curriculums.

Second, extremist ideals can be more effectively fought in the brain not only by introducing science topics earlier, but also by making those topics more interesting and accessible at all academic levels. Early science lessons should present complex ideas in ways that make them as easily digestible as religious teachings—and just as easy on the brain. To many scientists, “dumbing down science” is seen as blasphemous, but given that the battle between scientific and religious explanation is often a winner-takes-all scenario, a negligible loss of accuracy in certain Gen Ed science courses is well worth the gains. Public science advocates like Neil deGrasse Tyson and Bill Nye, along with many science awareness social media sites, have been very successful in this effort.

The hard truth of the matter is that for the human mind, believing is more of a reflex than a conscious, careful, and methodical action. Rather than looming over this somewhat disconcerting fact, we should use this information to change the conditions that allow fundamentalist beliefs and dangerous ideologies to flourish. We may not yet be able to go into the brain and change it to fit what needs to be learned, but we can certainly change what needs to be learned to fit the brain.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Waa Maxay "Hiigsi"?

Gasariir baa ka muuqda ereyada warbaahintu adeegsato. Waxaan akhriyey ereyga "hiigsi" oo loo la jeedo tiigaasha yool loo gol leeyahay. Higso iyo hiigsi waa ka la duwan yihiin sida aan ogahay oo ka hore waa wax si dhakhso ah la tiigsaday, ka dambe waa jilcinta haragga ama hilibka. Miyiga waxaa la aslaa "hiige", ama wax af leh, oo lagu jilciyo hilbaha. Saamaha waxaa laga sameeyaa harag la hiigay. Dhagax-lool baa lagu afeeyaa birta wax lagu hiigo (xoqo). Marka haddii ujeeddadu tahay dal cagahiisa ku istaaga dhakhso erey waxaa ugu dhow “higsi”. 

Waa guul haddii madaxdeennu hilib noo jilcinayso oo maatada baahan baa ku miran, balse dhan walba waa lagu hungoobay madaxda Soomaaliyeed oo ay ugu horrayso cambaarta wejigooda ku dheggan marka ay ku “hadaaqaan” hadal aan laga fiirsan, tiraab ka maran han hogotusaalaysan wanaagsanaantooda ama teenna intaba sababta oo ah umad walba waxay haleeshaa hoggaanka ay u qalanto oo ku caddaysaa dadnimadeeda. Hormuudka ay u dhiibato talada dalka waxaa lagama maarmaan ah in uu bulshada la hadli karo oo si wadar ah ugu faahfaahin karo qorshe. Qofka leh “hiigsi” malaha asaga baa u baahan jilcin, malaha asaga baa kakan oo u bislayn hoggaamin.

Weylaalis baa guddiyaalku garta ku gorfayn jireen oo goleyaashu qaadaadhigi jireen gocashooyinka bulshada ku na talo bixin jireen gogoldhigga isla markaas. Haddii maanta sidaas la yeelo ayada oo daaro (yaryar) noo dhisan yihiin weliba ayaa waxay noqon lahayd boor-ka-jaf dhaqan-dhalasheed tusaaleeya wanwanaagsanaanteennii waayihii fiyoobaanta maankeenna, ayaduba waa astaan loo baahday oo wax ku oollan. Nolosha garashaysan marka ay silloonto waxay dib-u-eegtaa hidderaaca ab’ogaaga samatabax ahaan oo ka dheegataa wanaag ay waa’ ku liibaantay. Halkaan waxaa yoto’an gumaynta hiddewaale iyo garaadlaaweyaasha guulallowsanaanshahooda.  

Maxaa lib-seege u sheegan karaa duruufaha oogan maanta? Qofka, tusaale ahaan, leh;

Waxaan drive-gareeyey

Waxaan plan-gareeyey

Waxaan call-gareeyey

Waxaan fund-gareeyey

Isku qaska ereyada Soomaaliga iyo kuwa shisheeyeed wax ka dharban ma leh oo qofka sidaas yeelay waxaa la roon in uu meesha u banneeyo qof ku firfircoon hawsha caynkaas ah. Gasariir (ama abaar daran) baa ka muuqata ereyada siyaasigu adeegsado oo waxay dhimaashaa xaafiiska shaqo oo qofnimadiisa ayay liiddaa waxay na hoos u dhigtaa yididdiillada dadweynaha. Taliyenimo waa xul iyo keni-adkaansho, hodantinnimo qofeed leh waayo’aragnimo iyo indheergarasho. Bulsho walba waxaa u kacay foolaad, sagsaaggu haddii uu foolaad isu moodo waa gabaaraggaddoon. Hadalku na waa xiriirka koowaad oo talis la leeyahay bulsho. Aftahannimo inkasta oo aan loo wada dhalan waa hodantinnimo hoggaamiyeed kaalinta koowaad ku leh maamulka—oo la mid ah kartida, aqoonta, dad-dhexgalka iyo fulinta—oo masuulku hawaawi yeelo.

Ereyga “hiigsi” oo si khaldan loo adeegsaday waxaa amaahday weriye-ku-sheegga ka arradan talaxtegga weriyenimo oo wuxuu u hirgalay hab kale aqoonyaraanta iyo khayrul-masuulnimada “foolaadkeenna” awgood. Waxaa in badan la isweydiiyay “sidee burburka looga baxaa” ayada oo la laalay ogaanta in madax-madax loo socdo oo aan qumaati loo istaagi karin teer la engeg bixiyo gaallanaanta afka tashiga lagu wadaago. Talis ku liita afka waxa uu adeegsan karaa afyaqaan ku talaxtegay isgaarsiinta; haatan waxaa tifaftirka muhiimad ku leh afafka qalaad.

Tixgelinta afafka shisheeyeed waa garasho leh afku waa seeska dawladda waa na toolmoonaan soo-jiidasho leh. Madax dadka aan hadal la wadaagi karin wax ay soo kordhiyaan baa yar. Haatan madaxweynaha lagu hungoobay—Xasan Sheekh—dadweynaha dareen la ma xiriiriyo oo waa afgarooc. Afgobaadsi se waxaa lagu mutaa kal oo kolka talisku taban yahay waa sed u gaar ah qofka og oo isku taxalujiya adeegsigiisa marka uu doono. Isla haddana ayada oo talisku wanaag leeyahay baa marka uu dhankaan gaabiyo waxaa dhasha is-afgaranwaa baahiya tuhun aan dhab ahayn. Mar walba muhiimadda hadalku talis u leeyahay waa mid weyn oo guubaabisa bulshada ama niyad jebisa. Hawl ahaan waa lagu sabsabaa dadweynaha oo loogu filaa saadaal wacan oo lagu toosiyaa tubta toosan.

Ereyga kale oo “hiigsi” oo kale si gurracan loo adeegsado waa “mooshin [motion]”, waxaa laga wadaa “bareere” ayada oo loo turin afka. Af Soomaaligu waa maaddo barasho ahaan qof ku qaadan karta dhammaanshaha noloshiisa, waa farshaxan sida Amiin Caamir loogu ka la horumaro oo aan guntiisa la gaari karin. Haddana qof walba afka uu u dhashay inta uu ka barto ayuu garaadkiisu yahay oo tilmaamay halka uu bulshada uga jiro, heerka waxbarashadiisu gaartay iyo inta uu dal/dad ugu fadhiyo. Barashada Soomaaligu waa masuuliyad saaran Soomaali walba.

Maamul goboleedyada teedsan dalka waa ku eedeysan yihiin dhaawaca af Soomaaliga. Warmurtiyeedka ay soosaaraan waxaa marmar lagu qoraa afaf shisheeyeed ayada oo dadku Soomaali yahay. Afyaqaan (afceliye, afhaye, iyo afjaaq) wax badan buu tari karaa baaxaaddegnaanta arrimaha dalka waxaa na baaqan lahaa dhalashada is-afgaranwaaga iyo wareerka ku lammaan oo noqday gedka nolosha Soomaalida. Booskiisu waa bannaan yahay.

Wacnaan lahayd helloonsho taliye dawga og, hidde dadnimo leh oo u dhuundaloola oo daacad u ah danaha oo isu rogin duuflaal marka uu habeen u hoydo Villa Soomaaliya, garaadle hadalkiisu hiraal muujiyo.

Friday, March 27, 2015

Cambaarayntii Iswiidhan: Iinta Dawladda Soomaaliya

War-murtiyeedkii Wasaaradda Arrimaha Debedda Soomaaliya soosaartay 24kii bisha Maarso (2015) oo lagu cambaareeyey Iswiidhan oo ku saabsanaa dhaleeceyn xad-gudub aadmiyeed ay fashay dawladda Sucuudi Careebiya baa amakaag ku curiyey bulshoweynta Soomaaliyeed. Waxay bulshadu ogsoon tahay barnaamijyada Soomaali-saaca ah oo ay Iswiidhan tartay Soomaalida halligantay; iyo dhanka kale; takoorka, quursida iyo bahdilka dawladda Sucuudigu ku la kacay dad Soomaaliyeed oo dalkeeda nolol biday balse loogu jawaabay si baxsan xeerhoosaadka aadmiyeed. Haddana waxaa la og yahay dhaleeceynta joogtaysan oo hay’adaha u dirira xuquuqda aadmigu ay Sucuudiga ku oogaan iyo Iswiidhan oo ah dalalka dunida ugu hor-u-marsan dhanka xuquuqda aadmiga. Sedbursiga Sucuudiga yaal baa ka masuul ah in dad u dhashay dalkaas barwaaqada gaaska laga helay u cararay waddanno Iswiidhan ku jirto oo nolol ugu barobaxay.

Dhoylaawennimo iyo ismoodsiis waa meel’e, ka la duwanaanta labada dal (Sucuudiga iyo Iswiidhan) waa kaaf iyo ka la dheeri, inta ay ka la duwanaantaasu Soomaali ahaan noo leedahay waa ay caddahay. Bilmesal habka Sucuudigu uu sida duurjoogta si ka daran ula dhaqmay hooyooyin Soomaaliyeed, dib-u-celinta dad dagaal ka soo qaxay, iyo inta sagan uu muujiyey waa arrimo dad badan oo Soomaaliyeed ku baraarujiyey in uu jiri karo isir-nacayb heerkaas gaarsiisan. Sucuudigu ku ma qasbana taakulaynta dadka dalkooda soo burburiyey, xigto la ma aha Soomaalida isir ahaan (in kasta oo dadka qaar haasaawe ahaan taas ku beerqabowsado), Iswiidhanna waa la mid dhankaan waxaa se ka la geeya ilbaxnimo iyo garawshe aadmiyeed. Waa qodobkaas dambe waxa kulmiya dadyowga dunida ama ka la sooca oo u dhexeeya Soomaaliya, Sucuudi Careebiya iyo Iswiidhan. Waa isla qodobkaas mid la xiriira ka ay dawladda Soomaaliya war-murtiyeed ka soosaartay. Kaas oo aad iyo aad u qaab daran oo u muuqda oraah aan laga fiirsan oo aan laga baaraandegin iyo ogaan la’aanta dad loo dhiibay hawl ay kasmo u lahayn.

Iswiidhan waxay mudan tahay bogaadin habka qurxoon oo ay uga dhiidhiday dooxatada Sucuudiga. Waxay mudan tahay mahadnaq ku aaddan qaabka ay dalkeeda ugu soo dhoweysay dad soo qaxay. Waxay mudan tahay abaal. Waxay leedahay dhiirrinaan ku dayasho mudan oo lagu hirtay si weyn. Iswiidhan inta ay u qatabay Soomaali cid u qabatay, oo ay dawladda Muqdisho ku jirto, waa yar yihiin. Gayllanka Iswiidhan ee kobcinta xuquuqda aadmiga ayey ahayd in Soomaaliya taageerto maadaama Soomaalidu ka buuxdo gaalshire dalal badan oo u baahan yihiin xuquuq la duudsiiyey. Dawladda Soomaaliyana waxay mudan tahay CAMBAARAYN weyn oo ku aaddan sida ay addoon ahaan ugu dhaqantay oo ay Sucuudiyiinta ugu ekeysiisay gumayste ay ka amar-qaadato ayada oo aan u turayn danaha dadkeeda. Dal madaxbannaan sidaan uma dhaqmo.

Sucuudi Careebiya waa dal ay taliska u hayso koox isku qoys ah oo bulshadu u tahay la-haysteyaal la laaluusho. Gaaska reer Galbeedku u soosaaray ka hor waxay ahaan jireen dad nolosha ku liita oo isu layn jiray qabiillooyin qarniyo badan. Waxaa dhaqaale u ahaa dakhliga ka soo xarooda Xajka. Waxaa lagu xifaalayn jiray reerbaaddiye/maangaab oo lagu xaman jiray, gaar ahaan Masaaridu, in ay weligood ilbixi doonin. Haatan waxay bilaabeen dhismaha Magaalada Boqorka oo lagu kharash gareeyey boqol bilyan oo doollar si dadkoodu aayaha u ilbaxo.

Haddii dadku qaar ku andacoodo diin baa naga dhexaysa, waxaa hubaal ah Sucuudigu in uu maalin qur diinta ka bixi lahaa haddii ay dan ugu jirin oo u danaysan lahaa dhan kale, waa dareen saaran daymaha iyo dibnaha in ay dan ahaan u haystaan diinta oo waa ogaal guud ahaan bulshada Sucuudi Careebiya taqaan. Boqollaal kun oo ardayeed baa Sucuudigu u diray dalalka reer Galbeedka si ay waxbarasho u soo qaataan, soo-laabashada dhallaankaas baa durba daaha ka feyday tiro sii-hanaqaadaysa oo ka baxay diinta Islaanka dalka Sucuudiga oo u arkay sheeko-badoweed beexaantay, taas oo Boqortooyadu u xeerisay in diinlaawennimo tahay argaggixisonimo sababta oo ah diintu waa danahooda oo loo adeegsadaa tab iyo xeel ay dawladaha Carbeed ee wada cambeereeyey Iswiidhan ee Soomaaliya ku jirto ay wadaagaan oo bulshooyinkooda ku maamulaan. "Haddii [Boqortooyada Sucuudigu] dan u aragto in Buudhiisim dalka lagu maamulo, waxay ku dhaqaaqi lahayd hal dharaar," waxaa yiri aqoonyahan u dhashay ayaga.

Labada dal, iyo guud ahaan Bariga Dhexe iyo Iswiidhan, waxaa ka dhexeeya isjiijiid siyaasadeed iyo dhaqaale. Tusaale ahaan cududda ganacsiyeed ee labada dal wuxuu u dhigmaa hal bilyan iyo bar. Dhanka kale, maadaama Iswiidhan gaarnimo u leedahay danaynta xuquuqda aadmiga ayaa waxay u codaysay dalnimada Falastiin oo ka caraysiiyey Israa’iil. Soomaaliya Iswiidhan la ma leh yooyootan ama iskaashi dhaqaale. Danta labada dal waa saacidaad un. Dawarsato dookh ma leh.

War-murtiyeedkii Wasaaradda Arrimaha Debedda ay ku dhaleeceysay Iswiidhan baa ahaa shaabbad kale oo lagu dhuftay baalka weyn ee ay ku yaallaan tabashooyinka bulshadu ka tebanayso dawladdaan lagu hungoobay, dawladdaan hab-dhaqankeedu liidnaanta astaamaysan yahay oo waxay tahay la garan kari waayey oo ka agnaan ah hannaanka dawladeed iyo hawlaha bulsho uga fadhido dawlad ahaan. Arrintaan waxay taransan tahay “ku-la-jire kaa-la-jire” ay dawladda Soomaaliyeed la safatay kuwii bulshadeeda laadka la dhacay oo ay weliba ugu sacabbo tumayso.

Waxaa tiro goostay iimaha dawladda Soomaaliya leedahay oo tafiirgooyay kal-furnaantii loo hayey markii la yagleelay. Taddawur ay higsato waa’ hore baa laga quustay oo waxaa weli tuban dadkii tafantoofay oo gees ka daawanaya, iyo habacsanaanteeda, ama dhoysas maamul loo dhiibay oo dhukay dhego gufaysan iyo indhooleyaal tahantoogtay oo aan hawadin karin hawlaha arlada.

Hawlwadeennada Wasaraadda Arrimaha Debedda ma ogsoon yihiin in Iswiidhan bixiso mushaarka askarta ilaalisa? Ma ogsoon yihiin in Sucuudi Careebiya soo xawishay aydiyoolojiga argaggixisada u oomman dhiiggooda? Ma ogsoon yihiin in bulshadu ka rajo-beeshay oo meesha ay joogaan lilan tahay? Mise wax ay og yihiin baa iska yar oo ay iintu ugu horrayso?

Dawladda maanta waa lohod aan lahayn laf iyo ricir. Sidaas darteed haddii ay wax kale qaban weyday, oo ay weliba ka gaabisay gaaridda dhaqaaqjoogeyaashii Ku-Meel-Gaarkii ay beddeshay dhowr gu' ka hor, ha ogsoonaato ugu yaraan in ay ergo tahay. Waxay dharaarmaalisay sandareerto Iswiidhan u sadqaysay danyarta leelleelku haleelay leelleeltirnaansho ahaan. Kistaas oo la’aanteed har cad lagu ugaarsan lahaa rugaha ay Muqdisho ka deggan tahay lagu na tirtiri lahaa. Kista na waxay ku dartay gardarro iyo gef malaha ayada oo naawilaysa gacanqabasho marka doorasho timaaddo hase yeeshee waa tallaabo ka mid tallaabooyin dawladdaanu qaadday oo amakaag miiran leh.

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Intellectual Slump in the Muslim World

The United Kingdom government has banned the teaching of creationism in free schools and academies, during the same period a viral video circulated social media in which a Saudi cleric postulated the Earth to be flat. Another immediate example: The European Space Agency managed to put Philae on a one-km wide comet named 67P, with a speed of 135,00p km/h, after a 3,907-day-long journey to a location 500 million km away. It coincided with Islamic terrorists attacking four continents for "guaranteed place in heaven" by way of a leader's speech.

The advancement of modern humans has little to do with faith. For most Europeans the Bible is largely mythology. It contains some garbled history, some record of religious/tribal law, and some fables, but at this distance it has become mere myth. There are also points at which one can actually observe the myth-making in progress when comparing events recorded in the bible with the same events in history (the Book of Jeremiah is a fine example).

Teaching reality in the UK schools rather than magical fairies best illustrates the extent to which the Muslim world has fallen behind in the age of enlightenment. England did not begin as a non-theist country. What they did was, essentially, expel radical religious people and encourage environment conducive to enlightenment. Constant pressure, constant and relentless demonstration that evidence-based approaches work, and consistently rewarding such approaches is what seems to have worked in Europe.

To an outsider this societal approach may appear unobtainable but it's fairly easy to contrivance. A society or a community should be strong enough to be able to introspect and look within itself, accept any shortcoming and overcome those shortcomings through reform and progress. Such actions can only lead to a better outcome for not only the person's community and society but the for everyone at large. It precedes removal of ignorant clerics and lays the foundation for society accepting the importance of truth at which point children could be taught to think critically. Crux of the matter is religion is an impediment to human flourishing, and with regards to the uneducated clerics: You have two choices when you have a roadblock erected by religion; you can drive through it or stop and proceed no further. 

Emotional belief relies on unconvincing traditional beliefs. Fallacious presumptions take precedent over demonstrable facts. When presented with demonstrable facts the believers gumption straw-man and ad hominen attacks. They are following the flock without independent perspective which is how fanatics prefer and spread. A lack of diversity makes people think the majority view is the correct view, and therefore mandatory, view. The more you are exposed to a diversity of people the more the mind broadens and ceases thinking in absolutes.

Today we know "god" is impossible as defined by any major religion. Logically impossible. Any confirmation of the nature of "the creator of the universe" obtained from a book is ultimately derived from the imaginations of men. There is no "received" knowledge of any gods. They are anthropomorphic constructs invented by humans and bearing all the constraints and defects of human. There is zero evidence for the existence of any form of deity — but ample evidence for the creation by human beings of the gods we do have. Natural evolution is evident. Cosmic history is evident. God is evidently made up. We see evidence of a time before life, and then we see evidence of life. We see examples of molecules that, with the right components and under the right circumstances recombine into much more complex molecules. We see evidence of those components and circumstances on Earth a short time before there was anything we could call life.

If we teach children how primitive superstitions came to be around the world, they'll figure out that their religion is just one of them. If we teach them to think critically and rationally, they'll go to church/mosque and realize that the stories don't make any sense, that they can't be true, and that their holy book has to be cherry picked, and some amazing interpretational acrobatics have to take place so that they can extract any real morality from it. Teach them to be scientifically literate, and they'll come to understand evolution and natural history, and belief just won't be necessary any more. Teach them biology, physics, geology, anatomy. They don't need a lot of each one to get by, but the more they understand reality, the less likely they are to accept supernatural explanations for anything.  

The location of god changed throughout history; initially god was said to be living on the other side of the village, then the river, then the mountain, then above the clouds...now it's in the far corners of the universe or possibly in another universe. The exploration from tiny villages to continents and possibly beyond Earth chased gods farther, with cretinous arguments made for simplistic supposition of needing religion because we need to be controlled. This control alluded to is variable. Believers still find holes in science to support dogmatic assertions while denying the very foundations of science. The burden of proof they demand from science they will not demand from religion. This cognitive dissonance has become all too common.

Science and education are killing all religions. Right now it's the educated and strong who're leaving Islam in droves, and radical Islam heavily relies on the people being gullible as they are controlled by fear/deceit/threats (blasphemy laws). So Muslim clerics are rightfully concerned about the stagnation of Islam as becoming irrelevant by the day. Saudi clerics even now admit they're 'losing influence over the youth'. Sadly, we are all in for a very bumpy ride ahead due the aggressive nature of radical fundamentalists but inversely these hostile attacks lead some to devalue false beliefs.

The intellectual slump in the Muslim world incriminates the totalitarian regimes, the genocidal lunatic fringe, the Muslim apologists and the uneducated masses. The totalitarian regimes, for example the Saudi Royal family, use the fanatics as "useful idiots" through ideology to prolong their rule. The genocidal terrorists are told they are dying for virgin women. The apologists twist words, use half truths, deploy cultural relativism to stifle legitimate discussion about Islam. Making pointed efforts to conceal an emotional range and expressiveness to dis-incentivize any invigorating natural and instinctive habits of the intellectual centers of the mind which have atrophied over time. Tenured far-left ideologues provide maximum seductive impact for Muslim apologists' rhetoric with shaming terms like "Islamophobia" — how is it phobia when there is genuine security concern? They are essentially defending the indefensible by any means necessary unconcerned about spurring intellectual growth.

The uneducated masses use conspiracy theories and blaming the West as ego-protecting shields. Any scintilla for true intellectualism is shunned and debased in such environment of competing interests. Apropos the impotent rage-pouting deranged extremists, subject mutates into what Ibn Taymiyah said in the 12th century and glorifying backward jurisprudence. The insularity of mindless belief is betrayed by its own hive-mind corroding incantations. Think that most people are pretty much in agreement that the Quraan was taught by Mohammed to certain disciples/followers who learned it by heart, and translated it into written form decades after his death. Since this part was done by Arabic scholars there is nothing very remarkable about it being well-written. So whoever wrote it was highly literate. The scientific "facts" it contains are only so when interpreted as metaphor. This does not make a convincing case for a god of any kind. Not knowing is the preferred mode as many scientific errors found in the Quraan are even blocked online in the Muslim world.

Faith-based hypothetical exercise leaves little room for intellect. Deleteriously, impressionable Muslim minds misconstrue these age-old insular exchanges as credentialed intellectual stimulation.

Friday, February 27, 2015

Think Critically and Demand Evidence

Geographical location predicts which religion a person believes. Social construction and brainwashing ensure sustainability of belief systems. Religion is an ideology like any other, it has a beginning and an end. An ideology of ignorance, the whole basis of religion is understood to have been invented to control the masses. Kind of a government before government was invented, laws before law enforcement. And an opiate for the poor and ignorant still being trafficked today.

There is no evidence, historical or otherwise, for religion today while the fabrication is easily discernible. Scientific discoveries from the last several centuries have eroded any reasonable explanation for gods and critical thinking which naturally demands evidence have demolished sheepherder fairies about the universe.

Here is the main problem when critical thinking is applied: Which god? Christian? Muslim? Greek? Egyptian? One of the thousands if not millions of Native American or African Tribal gods? What about Cthulhu? Or a pink unicorn? Or gnomes that like making shoes? Every single one of those would be as valid as giving up and saying "god did it." And that's not even getting to the issue of defining what "god" is. Is it just a thing that had a hand in creating the universe we observe before us? Is it something that exerts force in this universe? Is it a number of somethings? Is it a fundamental force yet to be discovered or understood? Everyone seems to assume god is a human-like thing but why make that assumption? We can't even say with certainty that we're the only intelligent beings in the galaxy, what makes us so special that an unknown force looks exactly like us?

The demand for factual substantiation presents further explanations extracted from the simplistic talking points of the brainwashed flock. The availability of information in the age of enlightenment has forced the religious to produce more damning evidence of the fatuous primitive scriptures. Whatever gleaned from yet unexplained scientific concepts have become the rallying cry for the religious. Saying "proof that science can't explain" is a nonsensical sentence because science is the closest to an effective method to prove anything. All that's left then is amateurs interpreting natural phenomena according to their presumptions of the supernatural. The knowledge of ancient cultures, easily explainable today, indicates that it's not religion that described these things. It's people. It is Arab numbers that are responsible for Islam even existing outside of Mecca. So numbers made Islam great, but not in the 'wonderfully enlightened' way, just in the 'large group of fools' way.

Muslims, when asked about the atrocities committed by terror groups will conveniently denounce (particularly when they're in a non Muslim country; in Muslim countries support is unapologetic) by concluding a group is really wrong or are not true Muslims and Quraan doesn't allow killing innocent people. Yet "true Muslims" or said terror outfit disagree on what an "innocent" is. The allegedly infallible text is vulnerable to interpretation by anybody in any way desirable. This shows at the very least that what you want to call supernatural isn't perfect.

 (Flat Earth theory is widely held amongst Muslim theologians.)




 
 

 

Flat Earthers teach creationist fairies lacking factual basis. Life evolved out of simpler non-living systems as soon as we discount the supernatural, which we would be very foolish not to. Because attributing everything we don't know to a god makes us stop trying to find out. The brain is constantly assigning meaning to otherwise random data that fire-hoses itself across neurons. We have to recognize when we have incorrectly assigned meaning to data. It's just natural. There has been so many things in this universe that were previously attributed to gods, although they did not really know, as we today know for certain that these things depend on something else. They were therefore lying. To admit you don't know something makes you able to discover it, something you can not do if you attribute this something to a fictitious solution.








Critical thinkers demand that extraordinary claims be supported by extraordinary evidence, and refuse to accept extraordinary claims that are made by people who provide no evidence at all. Facts and evidence make something real, which has been provided by the scientific community for macro evolution for quite some time.

 (The objective isn't to provide material congruent to reality but to promote enthusiastic abandonment of reason for mysticism. Surely he wasn't born believing this nonsense as it's the result of systemic brainwashing which he will regrettably pass on to new generations.)
 
Today people who reject evolution either don't know anything about it, or have a vested interest in selling snake-oil, and know that they can't continue to sell Christianity to people (which is, of course, the biggest religious business at present) if they admit that evolution is true. Invariably, new discoveries make the scam of religions increasingly impossible to defend. Of course, it's not like we need new discoveries to disprove religions, usually their holy books do that all by themselves. The case against Christianity which is the largest of the three Abrahamic religions is simple;

1) Archaeology absolutely does not support Biblical claims.

2) Apart from a few minor characters (i.e. Pontius Pilate) there is no outside evidence to suggest that any of the Biblical characters actually existed.

3) Even if some of these characters did exist, the assorted miracles and other fanciful occurrences are enough to show that they are not reliable recordings of history, but the myths of an ancient and barbaric people.

Thinking critically is the best way to a healthy society where tolerance, progress and lesser violent behaviors would be cultivated. In this paradigm a generation of critical thinkers assimilates into society where decent and responsible parent would teach their children how to think rather than what to think. There is probably no better gift than to imbibe an individual with the ability to reason on their own. Teaching religion at school is the best way to promote belief without evidence and generate new generations of brain dead or lobotomized individuals incapable of independent analytical thought. It's the best way to ensure backwardness, intolerance, and violence.

Schools provide credibility to anything taught there and teaching ancient myths is an exercise in futility. Since religious people study a single book consisting of four hundred pages for life there is little to expand upon and the rest of life is spent on trying to fit new information on what's written in that single book. When learning places imbue innocent minds with fairies about creationism through fear, the natural beauty of the contemporary world has little truth or enjoyment. Evidence-based thinking introduces first steps of evolution (first came bacteria, algae, fish, amphibians [generalized]) while infinitely investigating the truth behind it all. Compare fresh young mind reading "The Origin of Species" and a more contemporary explanation, "Why Evolution is True" by Jerry A. Coyne, an excellent introduction to basic concepts, to Biblical stories about demons/devils and gods/angels battling a cosmic battle in a mythical place. The difference is demonstrable as it is appreciable.  

The scientific theory first needs to predict something in the way gravity and evolution predict observable events. It lists that every living organism on this planet has a genome (chromosomes and DNA) as conclusive evidence of evolution. DNA is universal in all living things, even vegetables have it. This links us all to every other life form on this planet. This is the scientific fact that proves definitely and without a doubt that we all, living things, have a common ancestor.

There are other kinds of mental viruses: Nazism, Communism, Fascism. Utopian dreams often become utopian nightmares. When we rid ourselves, finally, of the stupefying burden of religion, that is not the end of irrationality. Humans are basically irrational creatures, we arose from the muck, we developed tools of logic, reason, etc. Only when we use these tools do we rise above prejudice, superstition, and ignorance. But it doesn't change our basic irrational reptilian brain. Rational arguments against god make no difference to the faithful because faith itself is irrational. Faith is blindly following the unknown through inability or unwillingness to understand. People will believe what they want to believe regardless of the evidence. No amount of logical arguments will convince you of something that you arrived at without logic. This is the futility of rational arguments.

Friday, September 12, 2014

Pre-Islamic Arabia and Pagan Foundations of Islam

While many today would consider Islam to be a fiercely monotheist and purist religion absent of all pagan roots an examination of the historical record reveals a much more immediate past with several originally pagan practices still being practiced today under the guise of monotheism. Islam, like many other world religions, was created to unify a disintegrated tribal region for purposes of power and was less a revelation of one god then it was a form of henotheism masquerading as monotheism. We will find that many fundamental Islamic practices such as reverence and prayer toward the Kaaba, the very nature of Allah, and the the Hajj to Mecca all find their way to pagan beginnings.

While other monotheist religions may have been influenced by pagan cults in their beginning the difference in Islam is that these pagan practices continue up until today, arbitrarily without explanation or extensive scriptural support, and these ceremonies have not been purged. This may come as a startling revelation to some, considering the virulent strain of fundamentalist Islam that has risen to prominence in the late twentieth and twenty first century preaching a strict monotheism and intolerance or violence toward those who do not accept the one true god “Allah.”

Pre Islamic History

Doctors Richard Hooker and Richard Hines of Washington State University paint a compelling image of the landscape of pre-Islamic history. Before the Arabs became unified Arabia proper was comprised of warring tribes bound together by no permanent central government. As no major rivers ran through this region no large permanent cities became viable prospects, with large settlements such as Riyadh only becoming recently possible with modern technology. As a consequence the Arab peoples became nomadic herders of cattle who oversaw the domain of large pastures. For the purposes of this research we will focus on the pastoralist Bedouin tribes which comprise inner Arabia of the Pre-Islamic classical era and when “Arabs” are referenced we are specifically not including Arab kingdoms near the Levant and southern coast such as the Nabataean and Sabean empires.

While at times the Arabs would momentarily unify to raid Persia or the immensely wealthy Yemenite coast they mostly warred amongst each other, especially in the form of caravan raids, for the Arabs were prolific traders, and this was their primary source of wealth.

The commerce these tribes were concerned with was the Indian to Mediterranean trade which passed through Southern Arabia on its way to Byzantium. The Arab tribes served as intermediaries to facilitate such a trade and profited as being couriers of such goods or by simply taking up the warpath and raiding the goods from other tribes which tended to cooperate.

Classical Era

During the time of Mohammed, what has come to be known as the classical era, al-Arabiyya or classical Arabic became widespread and became the language of poetry and culture, allowing for the soon to be transmitted Koran. Muru’a or the Arabic equivalent to the Greek arête and Roman virtus, the virtue of manliness and excellence, was soon hailed as vital to heroic leadership. The cultivation of this virtue in tribal society transformed the Arab people who already had a disposition to war into a formidable expansionary force with a powerful leadership, a framework which would make it easier to equate kinship ties with military hierarchy and allowed for the formation of a sprawling Arab empire in years to come.

“Ilah”

Pre-Islamic religious practice was comprised of two principle sources: local animist tradition in the form of grove, rock and meteorite worship as well as veneration of a vast pantheon of gods mainly derived from western Semitic sources, to which the tribes celebrated a form of henotheism locally. When the Quraysh captured Mecca circa 500 C.E. following in the wake of the recent Arab militarization they proclaimed Hubal, the tribal head god who was known to have subordinate to him his goddess daughters al-Lat (cognate to Allatu, the Carthaginian underworld goddess originating from Ereshkigal), al-Uzza, and al-Manat (the same goddesses who famously appear in the “satanic verses” of Sura 53), as lord of the temple city (Occhigrosso 394-397). To the Quraysh this Hubal was often referred to as “Allah” for “Allah” is not a proper name but actually a contraction of “al-” and “-ilah” meaning “the god (Jeffery 85, Brill 302, Peters 3-41).” Even the word “Ilah” has a deeper meaning as “Il” or “Ilah” refers to an even earlier primeval lunar god worshipped by the Arabs which by the time of the Quraysh had become a general name for “god.” According to Carelton Coon “…under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allâh, the Supreme Being.”

This is not simply a matter of semantics: “Allah” does not mean “God” but “the god,” the first implies that there is a singular god and second meaning implies that this god is a god of prominence amongst others. Allah was not a revelatory name as discovered by Mohammed but instead a common term used by his tribe, and possibly the other tribes of Inner Arabia, to refer to the chief god amongst others.

Following in Semitic tradition many Arabs named their children as “servant” or “slave” of their chief god, the famous Carthaginian “Hannibal” translates to “grace of the Lord (Baal)” (Baal = El) for example. One such named individual was Abd Allah, Mohammed’s own father who died before Mohammed was even born (Andrae 13-30). Numerous others were named after “Allah” before the revelation of Islam occured including such significant figures of Pre-Islamic history such as Quraysh kinsmen Abd-Allah ben Djahsh, Ubayd-Allah, Abd-Allah ben Djudan and the sons of Umar: Abd-Allah and ‘Ubayd-Allah. The presence of such names in the historical record alludes to the notion that “Allah” was worshipped before Mohammed’s time and was in reverence of the god Hubal (Peters 3-41, Brockelmann 8-10).

It can be conjectured that Mohammed chose “Allah” as the “God” of Islam because the name rang true amongst his clansmen (Andrae 13-30) and the other Arab tribes who had come to respect Hubal as the chief god of Mecca, with the passing of time eventually centralizing the cult into the belief that “Allah” had always been the one God. Surely when Mohammed began referring to his new god as “Allah” it must have caused no immediate alarm amongst his Arab brethren as the term was not then used a proper noun but simply a substitute for a name of reverence (similar to the western Semitic Baal which simply means Lord and is not the proper name of the God being identified), in the case of the Quraysh: Hubal. This ingenious use of language was only made possible by a previous event in Pre-Islamic history which made the worship of Hubal familiar to the Arabs visiting Mecca: the conquest of the city by Mohammed’s tribe.

Worship of Stones and Idols


Connected with the worship of Gods was also the worship of stones and idols. When the Quraysh captured Mecca they installed atop the Kaaba an idol of Hubal, marking him most prominent amongst the reportedly three hundred and sixty god idols of the Cube (Armstrong 11). For the next one hundred and twenty years the cult of Hubal (up until Mohammed’s conquest of Mecca in 620 C.E.) was centralized and Arabs visiting Mecca during the Hajj would have become familiar with the god’s prominent position atop the other lesser deities represented at the holy city. A less likely report made in Sarwar’s Muhammed the Holy Prophet claims that “Amr bin Lahyo bin Harath bin Amr ul-Qais bin Thalaba bin Azd bin Khalan bin Babalyun bin Saba” of Hijaz had placed the Hubal idol even earlier, four hundred years before the birth of Mohammed (Sarwar 18-19). Regardless of who installed the Hubal idol in its prime location at Mecca what is surely known is that the Quraysh named the god chief amongst others. The Quraysh would have expected visiting Arabs to pay special homage to the “Lord” of the city upon their pilgrimage and to respect Hubal as the chief god while within the city. While these provisions did not destroy the polytheism of Arabia it may have reinforced henotheistic notions which would allow for a shift to monotheism to be not as startling as it would have been in past times and would have made Arabs familiar with the name of “Allah,” a phrase which by that time had become synonymous with Hubal.

History shows that as societies become increasingly wealthy, literate and militarily powerful they become increasingly monotheistic, a trend which may have been increasingly apparent in the years approaching Mohammed’s birth as made possible by the economic virtues of the classical Arabic era. Mohammed’s declaration of Shahadah can be interpreted as a final declaration of Hubal’s primacy and his destruction of the idol cults within Mecca during 620 C.E. more of a political showing of power rather than a religious statement. Mohammed’s centralization of the cult can be paralleled with the King Hezekiah’s religious reforms of the seventh century B.C.E., reforms with religious overtures more so designed to increase the monarch’s power from tribal overlord to king proper by means of national ideology (as proposed by Professor Robert Beckford in his Channel 4 documentary Who Wrote The Bible?).

Pagan Roots

While the Islamic god has roots in the worship of the lunar god Hubal so does the veneration of the Kaaba have ancient pagan roots. The original black stone which the Kaaba was built around to protect was most likely a meteorite connected with the worship of baetyli or sacred stones, a common practice of the pre-Islamic Arabs. As the ancient Arabs primarily worshipped gods representing astrological entities such as the moon, sun and Venus, the principal deity before Hubal being the worship of the lunar goddess al-Lat, these meteorites were considered to be actual pieces of the gods themselves and the places where they landed were considered the most sacred places of ancient Arabia. These places were considered to be areas to which the spirit and material world met, linking the heavens and earth, metaphorically referred to as the Gates of Heaven (Armstrong-2 221). Other Kaaba structures existed during the classical period such as the “red stone”, the deity of the south Arabian city of Ghaiman, and the “white stone” in the Ka’ba of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca) (Grunebaum 24). The worship of these stones was not only connected to the worship of primeval lunar gods but also even earlier animist traditions in accordance with the belief in stone fetishes, magical mountains, ponds, groves, special rock formations and “trees of strange growth” to which the Arabs believed were possessed by spirits which afforded them special protection or blessings in war and in economic ventures, according to Grunebaum among others (Brockelmann 8-10, Van Ess 29, Martin 96, Rodinson 16-17).

It is likely that the Kaaba we know today, the one which houses the black stone, was one of the few if not the only shrines to be constructed out of stone and to which a major cult of worship developed. Mecca would soon come to be known as a holy ground to which warring tribes could meet peacefully and settle their differences (Grunebaum 18), a practice which would lead to regular pilgrimages to the site, visits which eventually become known as the Hajj. The Kaaba is mentioned by several ancient historians including the second century C.E. historian Ptolemy who refers to it as Macoraba, a “south Arabian foundation created around a sanctuary” (Wensinck 318). The first century B.C.E. historian Diodorus Siculus also mentions the Kaaba in his Bibliotheca Historica saying “and a temple has been set-up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians (Gibbon 223-224).”

While Mecca was considered a sacred site during this ancient period it had more implications as sanctified ground useful for peaceful convergence than it had as a religious temple, the latter implication was brought about with the Quraysh invasion and the primacy of Hubal in an attempt at centralizing the tribe’s regional power (Grunebaum 19). The Quraysh solidified the notion of the Kaaba as a religious temple and also a major spice, leather, jewelry, blacksmithing, textile and perfume (Heck) trading center (Armstrong-2 221-222) which greatly increased the power and prestige of the tribe and organized yearly pilgrimages to the site, formalizing the Hajj into a ritualized custom.

These arbitrary reverences based in pagan superstitions, goddess worship, tribal infighting, idol worship and animism would come to form some of the fundamental rituals of Islam, foundations which were supposedly revealed to Mohammed by the angel Gabriel. In actuality it can conjectured that Mohammed reinvented pagan institutions which had already existed for hundreds or even thousands of years in hopes of creating a seductive, tribally accepted imperial ideology designed to form a strong unifying backbone for the Arab empire to come, to which Mohammed was supremely successful.